Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors

1. List three reasons why some students continue to cause problems even when there is a good classroom management plan in place?

● They can have stressors outside of class that affect their ability and concentration levels.
● They can be considered at risk due to sociological factors (low income, English learner)
● They may have a disability or disabilities

2. Discuss at least one benefit and one challenge of intervening early in the acting-out cycle to prevent problem behaviors from escalating.

The biggest benefit to intervening early is you can re-direct the actions or behavior into something appropriate for the classroom before the student gets too agitated. However, the challenge is to recognize the triggers before the behavior or actions have escalated too far.

3. Think back to the Challenge at the beginning of this Module. Ms. Rollison is having trouble with Patrick, who is a model student on some days and is rude and disruptive and refuses to work on others. Unfortunately, she probably does not have enough information to figure out what Patrick’s triggers are. Although not discussed explicitly in the Module, can you think of three methods by which Ms. Rollison could determine his triggers?

● It could be negative interactions with a student or teacher
● It could be a change in the schedule
● It could be a disagreement with a peer, family member or outside source.

4.Ms. Rollison is also having trouble with Tameka, who refuses to do any written work. In this case, Ms. Rollison does have enough information to figure out what Tameka’s trigger is. What is it?

I think that Ms. Rollison can determine that written assignments cause Tameka to have trouble. Personally, I would run a test to determine if written assignments cause the behavior but the teacher should be able to determine that written work triggers Tameka’s behavior because she won’t do any written work.

5. Once either Patrick or Tameka enters the Agitation Phase, what would you recommend that Ms. Rollison do? If she doesn’t recognize the Agitation Phase, what would you recommend differently for the Acceleration Phase?

If either student enters the agitation phase it is important that the teacher looks for ways for the student to be redirected to the proper behavior. The teacher could try to get the student to become more actively engaged in the lesson through a question, reading aloud, helping the group with the project etc. If Ms. Rollison can not recognize the agitation phase, during the Acceleration Phase she should redirect the student, wait for a response and if the behavior has not been resolved she should follow up with a consequence.

6. What is the primary reason that teachers are often reluctant to engage in debriefing during the Recovery Phase? Why is it important to debrief in spite of this reluctance?

Debriefing means that you have to address the problem again explain why it was an issue and give them proper ways to deal with the stress or agitation. It is not a fun task and can potentially cause the behavior to re-occur but is necessary to make sure that the student is aware of the problem. Additionally, you need to help them figure out ways to prevent the behavior by themselves. We need to help the students become personally responsible for their behavior.

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Cultural Shift Assignment

For my Cultural Shift Assignment, I choose to go to a Mormon Church. I went to The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints on Sunday February 5th in Ventura, California. I
decided on going to a church because religion is a central component of many people’s culture.
Our customs, holidays, dress and expectations are largely derived from our religious beliefs.
Typically, children are converted to their parents religion. The events and services act as a way
for families to socialize with their community, align with a group, establish core beliefs and

Overall, this is a break from my norms because I personally have found that religion can
serve to segregate just as much as it can bring people together. Hence, I do not go to church
often. But ultimately why I choose to attend a Mormon church is because I have never been to
one and a very good family friend converted to Mormonism when he married his wife.
Unfortunately, this caused us to drift apart as he looked to align with the customs of the Mormon
Church and began to socialize with people of the Mormon congregation. For me, it was very
weird. I went from having someone that I grew up with since I was 2 month old and having tons
of relatable experience and thoughts to someone that viewed the world differently.
Leading up to going to the church, I definitely had my reservations and was nervous
about attending. I have never liked having someone try to convert me to their religious beliefs. It
makes me very uncomfortable and I believe it is rude. The Mormon Church has a long history of
trying to convert people as the males are required to do a mission trip to convert people to their
religion. The whole white shirt, black pants and a tie walking door to door with the message of
mormonism. I wasn’t looking forward to going to their spiritual place as a non-mormon. But that
is the point of this assignment and there is a large chance that I could have a Mormon student in
one of my classes. I hope that this experience can help me better understand my friend and to
become more culturally aware.

I arrived a bit early to the Mormon church and walked around the premises. It looked like
and felt like the majority of churches that I have been to. I entered into the main room and
scanned the area. It was fairly quiet from what I expected but there were a couple of people in
the main service room moving around. Everyone looked like they were dressed in formal wear. I
felt a bit underdressed but moved to the back and grabbed a seat. The coir group was singing
songs that reminded me of the Christian Churches I have attended. Additionally, the
atmosphere felt very similar to the christian churches. As the service began they started with
some hymns and songs which seemed to pull from the Christian belief. Afterwards the priest
moved to the main portion of the service; The Sacrament. This is the main sermon that is give to
the congregation. In this case, the priest was talking about the power of community and the
need to rely on each other to further their understanding of God. They also do a Sacrament
Communion of bread and water and pass a tithing around. Afterwards, one of the members of
the congregation was invited to speak about his experience of staying true to Jesus. You could
tell that the community was tight knit and that the congregation members were familiar with
each other. Most of my interactions with the congregation were simple hi, a quick smile and
moving on. Hence, my expectation of having someone try to convert me was far from the truth.
It seems like the majority of their outreach is done through mission trips and events but not at
their church. I ended up doing some research and joining a temple requires an invite from a
member. You need to show that you are prepared to follow the teaching of the church, align with
the group and to have the support of a current congregation member. Hence, I think they were
surprised that I was there as a non-congregation member.

I am glad that I was able to go to the Mormon Church. I was able to get out of my
comfort zone and experience a new religion. Although, I do not think that Mormonism is
something that I will ever be interested in. I can understand the need for community and respect
that people find solace in practicing their faith. It was nice to be able to have casual interactions
with a couple of the congregation members and to find that they operate very similarly to any
other church I have been to.

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EDLT 501 Final Study Guide

Know the characteristics of children in the:

a. Preoperational –

i. Symbolic function substage- Age 2 to 4: child begins to learn to speak
at age two and lasts up until the age of seven, Children’s increase in
playing and pretending takes place in this stage. However, the child still
has trouble seeing things from different points of view, the questions of
“why?” and “how come?” – Weakness of ages is ego, artificialism and
transductive reasoning.

ii. Intuitive thought substage – Age 4 to 7: children tend to become very
curious and ask many questions, beginning the use of primitive
reasoning. There is an emergence in the interest of reasoning and
wanting to know why things are the way they are. Weakness – a>b>c hard
time distinguishing categories and subcategories, size/volume
comparisons etc.

b. Concrete operational – Age 7 to 11: characterized by the appropriate use of
logic. Understands inductive but not deductive reasoning. Understand others
perspectives. Weakness – understands concrete reasoning; not abstract.
c. Formal operational period – Ages 11 to 20: Intelligence is demonstrated
through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Use deductive

Be able to fully define and describe private speech/egocentric speech

Private speech – is typically observed in children from about two to seven years old. [1] [2] [3]
Private speech or “self-talk” is observed speech spoken to oneself for communication,
self-guidance, and self-regulation of behavior. [2] Private speech is often thought to enhance the
developing early literacy skills and help to increase a child’s task performance, success, and
achievement. [2] Numerous sources trace the first theories of private speech back to two, early
well-known developmental psychologists, Vygotsky and Piaget. [1] [3] Both of these psychologists
mainly studied private speech in young children, yet they had different views and terms.
Piaget believed that egocentric children use language primarily for communication with oneself.
Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, and this egocentric speech
was merely the child’s thoughts. [16] He believed that this speech had no special function; it was
used as a way of accompanying and reinforcing the child’s current activity. He theorized that as
the child matures cognitively and socially the amount of egocentric speech used would be
reduced. [16] However, Vygotsky felt that egocentric speech has more meaning, as it allows the
child’s growth in social speech and high mental development. [16] In addition to Piaget’s theory,
he believed that when communicating with others, the child believes that others know
everything about the topic of discussion and become frustrated when asked to give further
detail. [15]

Piaget also believed that egocentrism affects the child’s sense of morality. [15] Due to
egocentrism, the child is only concerned with the final outcome of an event rather than another’s
intentions. Only when entering the concrete-operational stage of development at age seven to
twelve, children became less egocentric and could appreciate viewpoints other than their own.
In other words, they were capable of cognitive perspective-taking. However, the mountains test
has been criticized for judging only the child’s visuo-spatial awareness, rather than egocentrism.
How are Montessori schools different from traditional public schools

Montessori education is based on the belief that children are individuals with their own
strengths, needs, likes and learning styles. To use the latest educational catchphrases,
Montessori education is ‘multi-modality, differentiated instruction.

In more everyday terms, Montessorians disagree with the idea that all children learn in the exact
same way at the exact same time of their life. What things interest this child so that I can use
his/her natural interests and abilities to teach this concept that they need to know?”
Instead it is filled with many materials that teach a wide range of levels and concepts.
Obviously, a Montessori classroom will not look like a normal classroom. Rarely, if ever, will you
find the whole class sitting with their books out looking at the teacher show them how to fill in a
worksheet. Instead you will see children, some in groups, some by themselves, working on
different concepts, and the teacher sitting with a small group of children, usually on the floor
around a mat.

Some people talk about the lack of “structure'” in a Montessori Classroom. They hear the word
“freedom'” and think “chaos” or “free for all”. Yet, if the teacher is organized this does not
happen. Children will be given a work plan or a contract and will need to complete an array of
educational activities just like in a more traditional classroom. The main difference being that the
activities will be at each child’s “maximum plane of development”, will be presented and
practiced in a way that the child understands, and the child will have the freedom to choose
which he/she does first.

The most comprehensive longitude research on Montessori Education in comparison to
traditional education was published last year by a psychology professor at the University of
Virginia, Dr. Angeline Lillard.. Her recent article was so well researched and documented, that it
is the only educational article ever to be published in a scientific magazine.

Initiative vs. Guilt

Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development .
This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and five. During the
initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world
through directing play and other social interaction. Let’s take a closer look at some of the major
events that take place at this stage of psychosocial development.

A Closer Look at the Initiative vs. Guilt Stage

Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by
planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important
for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices.
Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of
themselves and to become overly dependent upon the help of others.
This stage can sometimes be frustrating for parents and caregivers as children begin to
exercise more control over the things that impact their lives. Such decisions can range from the
friends they play with, the activities they engage in, and the way that they approach different

Industry vs. Inferiority

Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial
development . The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven.
According to Erikson’s stage theory, people progress through a series of stages as they develop
and grow. Unlike many other developmental theories, Erikson’s addresses changes that occur
across the entire lifespan, from birth to death.

Psychosocial theory does not focus on the obvious physical changes that occur as children
grow up, but rather on the socioemotional factors that influence an individual’s psychological
growth. At each point in development, people face a crisis. In order to resolve this crisis,
children and adults are faced with mastering the developmental task primary to that stage.
If this skill is successfully achieved, it leads to an ability that contributes to lifelong well-being.
Failing to master these critical tasks, however, can result in social and emotional struggles that
last a lifetime.

The Social World Expands

School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through
social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and

During the earlier stages, a child’s interactions centered primarily on caregivers, family members
and others in their immediate household. As the school years begin, the realm of social
influence increases dramatically. Friends and classmates play a role in how children progress
through the industry versus inferiority stage.

Schoolwork Helps Build Competency

At earlier stages of development, children were largely able to engage in activities for fun and to
receive praise and attention. Once school begins, actual performance and skill are evaluated.
Grades and feedback from educators encourage kids to pay more attention to the actual quality
of their work.

During the industry versus inferiority stage, children become capable of performing increasingly
complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and
commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their
skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers or peers will doubt
their ability to be successful.

According to Erikson, this stage is vital in developing self-confidence . During school and other
social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as
reading, writing, drawing and solving problems .

Kids who do well in school are more likely to develop a sense of competence and confidence.
They feel good about themselves and their ability to succeed.Children who struggle with
schoolwork may have a harder time developing these feelings of sureness. Instead, they may
be left with feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.

At this stage, it is important for both parents and teachers to offer support and encouragement.
However, adults should be careful not to equate achievement with acceptance and love.
Unconditional love and support from adults can help all children through this stage, but
particularly those who may struggle with feelings of inferiority.

Children who are overpraised, on the other hand, might develop a sense of arrogance. Clearly,
balance plays a major role at this point in development. Parents can help kids develop a sense
of realistic competence by avoiding excessive praise and rewards, encouraging efforts and
helping kids develop a growth mindset . Even if children struggle in some areas of school,
encouraging kids in areas in which they excel can help foster feelings of competence and

How is intelligence measured? What do the results of IQ tests tell us? What are the
limitations of IQ tests? What are the other forms of intelligence? Be able to describe the
importance of these alternative forms.

Classically, the IQ or Intelligence Quotient test was an accepted tool in determining intelligence.
IQ tests were administered in a variety of disciplines such as logic, culture, emotional, spatial,
and verbal. All were designed to determine a level of competency and understanding in these
frameworks but most of all, had to determine a high level of problem solving. memory was also
highly prized as a sign of intelligence but has somewhat been abandoned. After testing , a score
was determined from the cumulative score of all tests. Theoretically, two people could have the
same score yet manifest completely different strengths. Yet what is consistent among all tested
is the ability to be able to seek and recognize patterns which when understood can bring logic
and order to the subject matter. Furthermore, these logical structures of patterns or languages
could be used to problem solve. That’s why savants are not considered geniuses or genii.
Because they possess a highly acute faculty but do not demonstrate a total extraordinary
intellectual power.

IQ tests have severe limitations because they restrict people’s understanding of intelligence and
do not test all situations that show intelligent behavior. These tests do not consider the
multidimensional nature of intelligence and are not always accurate in predicting success.
Typically, IQ tests measure only verbal and mathematical abilities despite the fact that
psychologist Howard Gardner identified at least seven types of intelligence.

● Visual-spatial Intelligence
● Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
● Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
● Logical-mathematical Intelligence
● Interpersonal Intelligence
● Musical Intelligence
● Intrapersonal Intelligence
● Naturalistic Intelligence

Be able to connect the physical characteristics of children in the adolescence phase and
the potential impact these characteristics may have on education/instruction.
The years between 6 and 14—middle childhood and early adolescence—are a time of
important developmental advances that establish children’s sense of identity. During
these years, children make strides toward adulthood by becoming competent, independent,
self-aware, and involved in the world beyond their families. Biological and
cognitive changes transform children’s bodies and minds. Social relationships and roles
change dramatically as children enter school, join programs, and become involved
with peers and adults outside their families. During middle childhood, children
develop a sense of self-esteem and individuality, comparing themselves with their
peers. They come to expect they will succeed or fail at different tasks. They may
develop an orientation toward achievement that will color their response to school
and other challenges for many years. In early adolescence, the tumultuous physical
and social changes that accompany puberty, the desire for autonomy and distance
from the family, and the transition from elementary school to middle school or junior
high can all cause problems for young people. When adolescents are in settings (in
school, at home, or in community programs) that are not attuned to their needs and
emerging independence, they can lose confidence in themselves and slip into negative
behavior patterns such as truancy and school dropout. This article examines the
developmental changes that characterize the years from 6 to 14, and it highlights ways
in which the organization o
Be able to fully define “egocentrism” and its impact on childhood development.

Egocentrism, a concept derived from Jean Piaget’s (1951) theory of cognitive development,
refers to a lack of differentiation between some aspect of self and other. The paradigm case is
the failure of perspective-taking that characterizes young children who are unable to infer what
another person is thinking, feeling, or seeing. Unable to infer accurately the perspective of
others, the egocentric child attributes to them his or her own perspective instead. The inability to
decenter from one’s own perspective results in egocentric confusion of social perspectives.
But egocentrism is a broader concept that encompasses a number of additional curiosities of
early cognitive development, including realism (the confusion of objective and subjective),
animism (confusion of animate and inanimate), and artificialism (confusion of human activity or
intentions with natural causes). What these forms of egocentrism have in common is the inability
to differentiate subjective and objective perspectives. Children project subjective qualities onto
external objects or events; are unable to decenter from their own perspective, or else assimilate
objective reality to their subjective schemas, deforming reality as a result. So the child who
believes that dreams take place in one’s room at night (realism), that moving objects have life
and consciousness (animism), or that the moon follows them because it wants to (artificialism),
is displaying egocentrism just as surely as the child who is unable to differentiate self-other
perspectives. Piaget suggested that egocentrism was a primary characteristic of children’s
thought processes until around 6 to 7 years of age, or when they are able to form mental
representations during problem solving. However, while egocentrism is regarded typically as a
problem of early cognitive development, such seemingly childish thought may not be entirely
absent even in later periods of development.

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People First Language – Proper Terms for Disabilities

Question 1:

There are many terms that have been used throughout history to describe people with disabilities. Some of the words I have heard are retarded, stupid, dumb, handicapped, inept, deaf, blind, crazy, insane, schizo and more. I believe that the above words are inappropriate. These words are used to describe their condition as a negative attribute. Many people do not view their disability as a negative attribute but just part of life. It is not our place to judge but to learn from people. We want to make sure that we are not conveying a negative attitude towards a disability just because it is different.

Question 2:

I was actually a bit surprised by my search because a lot of the terms that were used while I was growing up have been replaced with more social acceptable terms. I believe that the media has tried to change the terms that are used. However, you can still see disabilities conveyed in a negative ways in the media. Most of the time that you are hearing about disabilities in the media is when it is associated with a school shooting or gun ownership. Finding positive coverage of disabilities conveyed in a positive way are very limited. I think that we have made large progress in helping people to understand the need to frame things in a positive light. We need to avoid establishing self-fulfilling prophecies. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive or negative feedback between belief and behavior. It is important that we do reinforce the person to view their disability as a negative.

Question 3:

I believe that reporters should use the proper terminology. They have a very public position and influence people’s understanding and use of language. Many people believe that if they hear it on TV it is appropriate to use in their social circles. I think a good example of the influence that reporters or public icons have is Donald Trumps video saying explicit things. He used a term that has been repeated across the nation, on CNN and has been normalized even though we deem it as inappropriate. It is important that reporters recognize their influence on their communities and try to use the proper terms.

Question 4:

I would hope to educate the individual on the proper terminology by pulling them to the side of class where I would explain to them how the term that they used can be hurtful and can cause another person stress. I would give them socially correct terms to use in the future. Additionally, I would push the importance of using the correct language in order to maintain a respectful learning environment and request they they use the proper language in the future while in my classroom.

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