Know the characteristics of children in the:
a. Preoperational –
i. Symbolic function substage- Age 2 to 4: child begins to learn to speak
at age two and lasts up until the age of seven, Children’s increase in
playing and pretending takes place in this stage. However, the child still
has trouble seeing things from different points of view, the questions of
“why?” and “how come?” – Weakness of ages is ego, artificialism and
ii. Intuitive thought substage – Age 4 to 7: children tend to become very
curious and ask many questions, beginning the use of primitive
reasoning. There is an emergence in the interest of reasoning and
wanting to know why things are the way they are. Weakness – a>b>c hard
time distinguishing categories and subcategories, size/volume
b. Concrete operational – Age 7 to 11: characterized by the appropriate use of
logic. Understands inductive but not deductive reasoning. Understand others
perspectives. Weakness – understands concrete reasoning; not abstract.
c. Formal operational period – Ages 11 to 20: Intelligence is demonstrated
through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Use deductive
Be able to fully define and describe private speech/egocentric speech
Private speech – is typically observed in children from about two to seven years old.   
Private speech or “self-talk” is observed speech spoken to oneself for communication,
self-guidance, and self-regulation of behavior.  Private speech is often thought to enhance the
developing early literacy skills and help to increase a child’s task performance, success, and
achievement.  Numerous sources trace the first theories of private speech back to two, early
well-known developmental psychologists, Vygotsky and Piaget.   Both of these psychologists
mainly studied private speech in young children, yet they had different views and terms.
Piaget believed that egocentric children use language primarily for communication with oneself.
Piaget observed that children would talk to themselves during play, and this egocentric speech
was merely the child’s thoughts.  He believed that this speech had no special function; it was
used as a way of accompanying and reinforcing the child’s current activity. He theorized that as
the child matures cognitively and socially the amount of egocentric speech used would be
reduced.  However, Vygotsky felt that egocentric speech has more meaning, as it allows the
child’s growth in social speech and high mental development.  In addition to Piaget’s theory,
he believed that when communicating with others, the child believes that others know
everything about the topic of discussion and become frustrated when asked to give further
Piaget also believed that egocentrism affects the child’s sense of morality.  Due to
egocentrism, the child is only concerned with the final outcome of an event rather than another’s
intentions. Only when entering the concrete-operational stage of development at age seven to
twelve, children became less egocentric and could appreciate viewpoints other than their own.
In other words, they were capable of cognitive perspective-taking. However, the mountains test
has been criticized for judging only the child’s visuo-spatial awareness, rather than egocentrism.
How are Montessori schools different from traditional public schools
Montessori education is based on the belief that children are individuals with their own
strengths, needs, likes and learning styles. To use the latest educational catchphrases,
Montessori education is ‘multi-modality, differentiated instruction.
In more everyday terms, Montessorians disagree with the idea that all children learn in the exact
same way at the exact same time of their life. What things interest this child so that I can use
his/her natural interests and abilities to teach this concept that they need to know?”
Instead it is filled with many materials that teach a wide range of levels and concepts.
Obviously, a Montessori classroom will not look like a normal classroom. Rarely, if ever, will you
find the whole class sitting with their books out looking at the teacher show them how to fill in a
worksheet. Instead you will see children, some in groups, some by themselves, working on
different concepts, and the teacher sitting with a small group of children, usually on the floor
around a mat.
Some people talk about the lack of “structure'” in a Montessori Classroom. They hear the word
“freedom'” and think “chaos” or “free for all”. Yet, if the teacher is organized this does not
happen. Children will be given a work plan or a contract and will need to complete an array of
educational activities just like in a more traditional classroom. The main difference being that the
activities will be at each child’s “maximum plane of development”, will be presented and
practiced in a way that the child understands, and the child will have the freedom to choose
which he/she does first.
The most comprehensive longitude research on Montessori Education in comparison to
traditional education was published last year by a psychology professor at the University of
Virginia, Dr. Angeline Lillard.. Her recent article was so well researched and documented, that it
is the only educational article ever to be published in a scientific magazine.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development .
This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and five. During the
initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world
through directing play and other social interaction. Let’s take a closer look at some of the major
events that take place at this stage of psychosocial development.
A Closer Look at the Initiative vs. Guilt Stage
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by
planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important
for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices.
Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of
themselves and to become overly dependent upon the help of others.
This stage can sometimes be frustrating for parents and caregivers as children begin to
exercise more control over the things that impact their lives. Such decisions can range from the
friends they play with, the activities they engage in, and the way that they approach different
Industry vs. Inferiority
Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial
development . The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven.
According to Erikson’s stage theory, people progress through a series of stages as they develop
and grow. Unlike many other developmental theories, Erikson’s addresses changes that occur
across the entire lifespan, from birth to death.
Psychosocial theory does not focus on the obvious physical changes that occur as children
grow up, but rather on the socioemotional factors that influence an individual’s psychological
growth. At each point in development, people face a crisis. In order to resolve this crisis,
children and adults are faced with mastering the developmental task primary to that stage.
If this skill is successfully achieved, it leads to an ability that contributes to lifelong well-being.
Failing to master these critical tasks, however, can result in social and emotional struggles that
last a lifetime.
The Social World Expands
School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through
social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and
During the earlier stages, a child’s interactions centered primarily on caregivers, family members
and others in their immediate household. As the school years begin, the realm of social
influence increases dramatically. Friends and classmates play a role in how children progress
through the industry versus inferiority stage.
Schoolwork Helps Build Competency
At earlier stages of development, children were largely able to engage in activities for fun and to
receive praise and attention. Once school begins, actual performance and skill are evaluated.
Grades and feedback from educators encourage kids to pay more attention to the actual quality
of their work.
During the industry versus inferiority stage, children become capable of performing increasingly
complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and
commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their
skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers or peers will doubt
their ability to be successful.
According to Erikson, this stage is vital in developing self-confidence . During school and other
social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as
reading, writing, drawing and solving problems .
Kids who do well in school are more likely to develop a sense of competence and confidence.
They feel good about themselves and their ability to succeed.Children who struggle with
schoolwork may have a harder time developing these feelings of sureness. Instead, they may
be left with feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.
At this stage, it is important for both parents and teachers to offer support and encouragement.
However, adults should be careful not to equate achievement with acceptance and love.
Unconditional love and support from adults can help all children through this stage, but
particularly those who may struggle with feelings of inferiority.
Children who are overpraised, on the other hand, might develop a sense of arrogance. Clearly,
balance plays a major role at this point in development. Parents can help kids develop a sense
of realistic competence by avoiding excessive praise and rewards, encouraging efforts and
helping kids develop a growth mindset . Even if children struggle in some areas of school,
encouraging kids in areas in which they excel can help foster feelings of competence and
How is intelligence measured? What do the results of IQ tests tell us? What are the
limitations of IQ tests? What are the other forms of intelligence? Be able to describe the
importance of these alternative forms.
Classically, the IQ or Intelligence Quotient test was an accepted tool in determining intelligence.
IQ tests were administered in a variety of disciplines such as logic, culture, emotional, spatial,
and verbal. All were designed to determine a level of competency and understanding in these
frameworks but most of all, had to determine a high level of problem solving. memory was also
highly prized as a sign of intelligence but has somewhat been abandoned. After testing , a score
was determined from the cumulative score of all tests. Theoretically, two people could have the
same score yet manifest completely different strengths. Yet what is consistent among all tested
is the ability to be able to seek and recognize patterns which when understood can bring logic
and order to the subject matter. Furthermore, these logical structures of patterns or languages
could be used to problem solve. That’s why savants are not considered geniuses or genii.
Because they possess a highly acute faculty but do not demonstrate a total extraordinary
IQ tests have severe limitations because they restrict people’s understanding of intelligence and
do not test all situations that show intelligent behavior. These tests do not consider the
multidimensional nature of intelligence and are not always accurate in predicting success.
Typically, IQ tests measure only verbal and mathematical abilities despite the fact that
psychologist Howard Gardner identified at least seven types of intelligence.
● Visual-spatial Intelligence
● Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
● Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
● Logical-mathematical Intelligence
● Interpersonal Intelligence
● Musical Intelligence
● Intrapersonal Intelligence
● Naturalistic Intelligence
Be able to connect the physical characteristics of children in the adolescence phase and
the potential impact these characteristics may have on education/instruction.
The years between 6 and 14—middle childhood and early adolescence—are a time of
important developmental advances that establish children’s sense of identity. During
these years, children make strides toward adulthood by becoming competent, independent,
self-aware, and involved in the world beyond their families. Biological and
cognitive changes transform children’s bodies and minds. Social relationships and roles
change dramatically as children enter school, join programs, and become involved
with peers and adults outside their families. During middle childhood, children
develop a sense of self-esteem and individuality, comparing themselves with their
peers. They come to expect they will succeed or fail at different tasks. They may
develop an orientation toward achievement that will color their response to school
and other challenges for many years. In early adolescence, the tumultuous physical
and social changes that accompany puberty, the desire for autonomy and distance
from the family, and the transition from elementary school to middle school or junior
high can all cause problems for young people. When adolescents are in settings (in
school, at home, or in community programs) that are not attuned to their needs and
emerging independence, they can lose confidence in themselves and slip into negative
behavior patterns such as truancy and school dropout. This article examines the
developmental changes that characterize the years from 6 to 14, and it highlights ways
in which the organization o
Be able to fully define “egocentrism” and its impact on childhood development.
Egocentrism, a concept derived from Jean Piaget’s (1951) theory of cognitive development,
refers to a lack of differentiation between some aspect of self and other. The paradigm case is
the failure of perspective-taking that characterizes young children who are unable to infer what
another person is thinking, feeling, or seeing. Unable to infer accurately the perspective of
others, the egocentric child attributes to them his or her own perspective instead. The inability to
decenter from one’s own perspective results in egocentric confusion of social perspectives.
But egocentrism is a broader concept that encompasses a number of additional curiosities of
early cognitive development, including realism (the confusion of objective and subjective),
animism (confusion of animate and inanimate), and artificialism (confusion of human activity or
intentions with natural causes). What these forms of egocentrism have in common is the inability
to differentiate subjective and objective perspectives. Children project subjective qualities onto
external objects or events; are unable to decenter from their own perspective, or else assimilate
objective reality to their subjective schemas, deforming reality as a result. So the child who
believes that dreams take place in one’s room at night (realism), that moving objects have life
and consciousness (animism), or that the moon follows them because it wants to (artificialism),
is displaying egocentrism just as surely as the child who is unable to differentiate self-other
perspectives. Piaget suggested that egocentrism was a primary characteristic of children’s
thought processes until around 6 to 7 years of age, or when they are able to form mental
representations during problem solving. However, while egocentrism is regarded typically as a
problem of early cognitive development, such seemingly childish thought may not be entirely
absent even in later periods of development.
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